Success factors of distance education

Development of distance education :Initially, it was distance education means education by correspondence , any broker that was the postal service that transmits printed materials , or written , between the learner and the teacher . But the techniques used in distance education currently expanding to include a wide range of applications of computers and modern communication media like moons industrial . Can now use satellite telephone and connect broadcasting , voice and image , to remote locations without ground networks infrastructure is expensive.Where education is generally an essential function in human societies , it was natural that changing forms of education in general, and to evolve, with the escalation of technical development . As distance education depends in particular on communication techniques , the cradle of each phase of development in the emergence of these technologies to appropriate forms of its distance education.

 The evolution of networks, e- produced correspondence education through printed materials and written . Adi and start broadcasting to the use of radio in education. And the progress of electrical and electronic industries has increased the role of music in general education through recording devices , then the back of the TV, followed by the video . The increased importance of the forms of educational broadcasting , heard and see , with the prevalence of the use of satellites. With the proliferation of personal computers and computer networks , computer applications become , especially those based on the interaction of the most important means of distance education, and most effective , and in particular in the field of self-learning .

 In the United States , for example , granted preliminary licenses " educational radio " in the initial twenties of this century , and began broadcasting educational television in 1950 . Did not arise initially , and perhaps most important , open universities only in 1971 in Britain . And began using networks of computers in teaching and learning in the United States , when provided , " National Science Foundation " to U.S. universities the opportunity to use the Internet in the mid-eighties . This was followed , in the nineties , the start of the widespread use of computer media in the pre-university education , in the workplace and at home . ( Nader Fergany 0.1999 m (
Definition of Distance Education : Distance LearningThe complaint about the growing deficit in access to a clear definition of distance education ; there are many terms to him in English , such as:1 . Home schooling Home study2 . Independent Study Independent study3 . Additional studies External study4 . Study after Distance studyThis resulted in the varied definitions of distance education , including:• "It is the position of education occupies a means of communication available , Kalmtbuaat and telephone networks , telex systems, TV and computer mail and other wired and wireless devices play a key role in overcoming the problem of long distances that separate between the teacher and the learner to allow the opportunity to interact together" ( Tawfiq Mari and Mohammed Nasser , 1985 )• that " the term given to a type of education , based on the delivery of the educational process to learners living in remote areas or geographically isolated , and offers to those who do not allow their own circumstances to move to the classroom irregular , and forms of Applied correspondence education and education radio and TV " ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed, 1425 )• and that " the kind of education that is provided to the sites and places the student or the student where far away geographically from the professor , communication is done through the techniques of information transfer audio and video ( live and recorded ) or through computer technology and the Internet, including teaching synchronous and asynchronous " ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed, 1425 )• and that ( a variety of teaching methods in which the behavior learning separate from the teaching behavior , and includes those means which the communication between the teacher and the learner across devices and printing tools , mechanical devices , electronic and other devices " ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed, 1425 )• and that " the systematic use of print and other media , and this media should be well-prepared in order to link communication between learners and teachers , and provide support to learners in their studies " ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed, 1425 )

  I chose the first definition because he was clear , and different system of education and distance learning for formal education usual in two things: the first is the lack of direct confrontation between the teacher and the learner . The second is the distance between the teacher , Omusdr learning and the learner , Va. teacher and the learner is not combined by place one , and the timing of specific as is the case in the school and university education regulars (Maher Sabri, Salah Tawfik 0.2005 m)The areas of distance learning :1 - a college education :
     You may have conditions Ktheramen individuals for not completing their university education because of the work to be spent on the family , or because of lack of financial ability . In all of these cases you may lose these individuals hope to complete their college education , but education after solve the problem , and restores these individuals hope to complete their university studies through what is known as Ba open University .
     Has been concerned by the open universities in the world and has prepared a number of programs that rely on communication tools of all kinds , and the most famous of these universities currently the British Open University . And characteristics provide freedom for schools in the choice of subject and the place and date of the study. , Which led to a reduction in the cost of the study and the face of competition for classroom seats in universities , because the capacity is limited and is linked to Ba space and time and the number of the workforce.

 2 - service teacher training :
   Use this system for teacher training and rehabilitation in many countries of the world so as to develop their expertise and raise the level of their performance and practice teaching in the classroom .
   It is the leading models in this field program UNRWA UNESCO Institute of Education to train teachers Filstunain in all host countries .3 - general training programs :
   These programs target the many segments of the communities in their work site , Ka engineers , administrators, doctors and others, so as to enrich their knowledge and practices to determine their level of Applied . (Maher Sabri, Salah Tawfik 0.2005 m)Patterns of distance education :Evolving patterns of distance education and the development of alternate generations Transport information used in it as shown in the following table:Notes from the above table that the fourth generation of patterns of distance education has the best specifications for communication techniques used for distance education , and also notes that " distance education is not new , but new is the concept of e -learning remote electronic distance learning (EDL)"" The impact of the emergence of new technologies , especially computers in the use of some of the terms that may reflect the distance education of these terms : open education open learning, and distance learning tele-learning, and chapter -mail default virtual electronic classroom, and e-learning . E-learning . " ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed, 1425 )Distance education is divided in terms of transportation into two types:
 1 - direct communication ( synchronous ) : the lecturer and students communicate at the same time directly but physical presence is not necessary in the same place .2 - indirect contact ( asynchronous ) : It is not necessary that there is the lecturer and students at the same time or the same place , such as the use of e-mail and discussion forums ... Etc. .Both stylistic distance education, has its advantages and disadvantages , and we have seen that most universities in need of asynchronous method more than the simultaneous method for many reasons, including:- Schedule different students .- The technology required for the method of simultaneous prohibitive.- Most of the students do not have the Internet fast.
  ( Beautiful Atmesa 0.1430 e)Characteristics of distance education :1 - completely eliminate the constraints of time and place , a student learns is in his home or in his office or in his car at the time he wanted, depending on the circumstances available to him in the days of work or in vacation days and holidays because the connection will be through the Internet to study materials or educational previously uploaded Professor of , so is not required to exist Prof. student contact time , and thus may be a student in Cairo and related during daylight hours while his teacher in America asleep .At the same time, is no longer required to create classrooms and filled the nine hundreds or thousands .. This is already out of the question .. And therefore we would have spent on running the place and under the money and potential .2 - closer contact between teacher and student because the student by Professor connection through the Internet ,And Professor receives the message in his own time and is missed and the student receives a reply in his own time , and the two discussed and reacts degree is not available in the traditional education system .3 - also available work discussions and debates among students and they are located in places , and even in multiple countries on a particular subject they teach , and is not possible in the traditional education system .4 - and provides distance learning also multicultural and Ahtkakatha and mutual benefit among them because the students are studying together and they are from all over the world .5 - and distance learning also allows the possibility of combining the start of working life and at the same time of the study, and therefore no need for a rigid division of human life to a period of about 15-16 years of study to begin work later .6 - distance learning allows the continuation of learning at any time and in any subject and at any level with no trouble .7 - enables distance learning as well as adjust the exams and completely eliminate cheating in the exam and focus on thinking and analysis and inference and not only conservation and indoctrination .8 - and distance learning in the end it will reduce the cost.9 - and distance learning will spend on the problems of the school administration or management of the college and the issues of discipline and order and that all associated costs .10 - is the educational system keep pace with developments in the field of technology transfer and use of information in education.11 - make the most of the energies of qualified education instead of limiting their potential in the education of a limited number of students in regular universities , but the benefit of an unlimited number of students through modern technology for communications and information transfer . ( Afifi and friend Susan Anchorage )
Means of distance education :
   Using distance education and educational technology all modern means of communication for the success of the educational process from a distance, depending on the type of course and specialization , including:First printed educational materials :The textbook of the most important and easiest ways to learn printed , contains the textbook knowledge to be gained by the student also has the drawings and paintings , illustrations and exercises and sometimes techniques and self-tests , and a book author specifically for distance education more detailed explanation of the books of formal education , ranging in size 2 -3 times the size of his ilk wrote formal education in order to facilitate the student to interact with the material in the absence of a professor .
Second, non-print instructional materials , such as:• audio tapes .• visual tapes ( videos ) .• computer disks or CDs .
Third, the means of communication :• means of communication such as television via local broadcast and broadcast via satellite , has been used to broadcast video or two-way direction .• local and global radio .• phone to inquire and discuss the article with the professor .• Fax .• Computer and information networks of local and global ( Internet) .• e-mail .• regular mail to send the parcel educational , and using this medium to send significantly bags or parcels experimental laboratory for students of science subjects , such as microscopes and dissection tools and glass tools and computing facilities .
Fourth, other means :• public and private libraries .• research and educational laboratories at universities and research centers and educational centers of the university and hospital laboratories for some disciplines to accomplish and implement some of the educational , scientific experiments , and may be in the form of short summer courses . (Khalid Mustafa and Saleh Hamad , 2001 )
The need to distance education, and education multi-channel :There are many justifications for taking us to introduce a system of distance education , including:1 . It is linked to the philosophy of continuous learning , not for education alone , but for the education and development and cope with the requirements and needs and develop the skills that day after day , and in the various fields.2 . It is commensurate with the scientific progress rapid accumulation of knowledge large in which we live these days Vmtabah new in the field of the medicine , and Computer Engineering , for example, can be done after a day through the global information network ( Internet) ; This is the introduction of this type of education is up to date and to cope with the conditions of life in which we live today.3 . As proven by scientific research that barrier spatial does not have a negative impact on educational outcomes or educational attainment , many studies suggest that there is no difference in academic achievement between students who received their education remotely and among their peers who received their education in the classroom . ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed, 1425 )Terms of the success of distance education, and education multi-channel :Thought ( Parker 1996), that the focus of success in distance education is : a teacher , and you should keep in account the fact that there is no technology that compensates for the weakness of teaching skills , and when the teacher is a good standard , the technology becomes more pronounced , and that the teaching weak negative effect applications in distance education , but when there is a good veteran teacher who is capable of creative use of technology , lead to enrich the learning process for a student who does not sit within the walls of regular study .He ( McKenzie et al 1997 ) identified nine important factors for the success of distance education programs :1 - ease of use of the system.2 - the clarity of the characteristics of distance education , which distinguish it from traditional teaching .3 - Compatibility with the teacher's style ( of the relative advantages and compatibility ) .4 - Fear and motivated students and their development.5 - improve and develop the student's education .6 - the availability of enough time to learn how to use the system .7 - The possibility of the use of equipment and devices in the classroom .8 - proper training and enough teachers .9 - the availability of the necessary funds . (Sarah Oraini 0.1999 m)Cons introduction of distance education


Cons of the leading distance education as follows:1 . The absence of role models and the impact of the teacher in this type of education2 . Could not be this kind of education to discover talents and abilities of learners .3 . Do not develop verbal ability of the learner .4 . Might leak out of the learner boredom of sitting in front of the length of the hardware5 . Absence of the human side of the educational process , for his absence in the machine6 . Distance learning weakens the social relations of the learner7 . Affect learning by machine on the health of the learner .8 . The high cost of this type of education , especially in the beginning of the foundation and what you need this stage of sophisticated devices in modern means of communication and information technologies , as well as the cost of technical maintenance , it's the cost of educational technology and the associated cost of preparing the scientific material , design and cost of transmission via satellite and the cost of faculty members , administrators and technicians specialized centers .9 . Teaching manner of distance education needs of the teacher a lot of time in the preparation of decisions, and accurate description of her , and materials detailed and all -media support , which will depend upon the learner from a distance, and some believe that the time required to prepare a decision on after more than about 66% of the time required to prepare an ordinary decision .10 . The time required to respond to inquiries educated electronically much more than the time required to answer the same questions in education and the usual face- to-face .11 - lack some of the requirements of distance learning for some students or non- proficiency in use , such as computer and network support services such as information technology.12 . The scarcity of trained personnel to design and develop the means of distance education and the consequent time and great effort to train new cadres .13 - Some students may feel lost or confusion on educational activities .

 ( Mohammed Yusuf Ahmed 0.1425 e) and (f Khalid Mustafa and Saleh Hamad 0.2001 m)Challenges to face cons of distance education :1 . For students : You must provide the educational needs of the students is the cornerstone of all effective programs for distance education , a measure that is based on the evaluation of any effort in this field . Regardless of the educational context , the main task of the students are learning a daunting task even in the best of circumstances ; terms require enthusiasm , planning, and the ability to analyze and apply educational content to be educated at the delivery of information from a distance.2 . Skills and abilities of faculty : The success of any efforts to distance education rests with the faculty , in the traditional education system for the classroom , including the teacher's responsibility : to organize the contents of the seminar , and a better understanding of the needs of the students . It is incumbent upon all teachers after they prepare themselves to face the special challenges , and here For the teacher :. Develops practical understanding about the needs of students and recipes distance learners in the absence of direct contact and face- to-face .. Follow the teaching skills to take into account the needs and expectations of diverse and disparate recipients .. Develops a practical understanding of the technology delivery , with continued focus on the educational role of his personal .. Works efficiently as a guide and deftly directed to educational content .3 - counselors and mediators at the site :Often the teacher sees that it is useful to rely on a broker at the site ; to serve as a link between students and teacher , and his role in order to be effective it must accommodate the need to provide service to the student , in addition to the teacher's expectations of him. More importantly, have the desire to guide the implementation of the teacher's instruction .It enhances the role of mediator in the performance of the education service and having a good budget and techniques ; , even if his experience in the field of educational technology a few ; guides where the processing equipment and techniques to collect tuition , and supervise the examinations as if they were the eyes and ears of teachers .4 - technical support team : These people are the unknown soldiers in the process of distance education, they are making sure that the vast amount of Specialties required for the success of this program has been dealt with effectively . In the most successful programs for distance education , is the unification of the functions of supporting services to include registration of students , copying and distribution of materials , providing books , and copyright protection , and the development of programs , and the work of special reports in degrees , and management of technical resources .... Etc. .The individuals based on support are really the foundation that maintains the coordination of efforts together and interdependence in the field of distance education.5 - administrators : Although the administrators usually influence in the planning of the distance learning program for the institution , but they often lose control to professional managers as soon as the program is being implemented. The administrators actors in the field of distance education are more than just the people who provide ideas . They're doing a combined process of building , and decision-making , and they arbitrators . And working closely with those in charge of technical matters and support services ; to ensure that technological resources have been utilized in the educational mission of the institution effectively . The important thing is that they keep the focus on the academic side , with the observation that meet the educational needs of the student after the student is the responsibility for the first and last . ( Jasmine return , Journal of Muslim soldier )Conclusion :Distance education entrance regenerative formal learning regulars , based on the use of communication media , because of its roots to education by correspondence , and study at home. He coordinated an education based on self-learning , and takes care to provide educational materials on the basis of the distance between the parties to the educational process , and guide students and their support and assistance and supervision their development by a team of counselors and determined their duties and responsibilities . remote Education is an effective way to provide learning opportunities and enriching experiences for operators who can not afford to drop out and work full-time to learn, who have been deprived of any formal education .Source loving NetworkReferences:1 - enlightenment and technological modernization of education / formation Maher Sabry ; Salah Tawfik . - I 0.1 . - Alexandria , Egypt : modern office campus 0.2005 .